Abstract

We present the design and performance of a low-cost, reciprocal, compact free-space terminal employing tip/tilt pointing compensation that enables optical two-way time-frequency transfer over free-space links across the turbulent atmosphere. The insertion loss of the terminals is 1.5  dB with total link losses of 15 dB, 24 dB, and 50 dB across horizontal, turbulent 2-km, 4-km, and 12-km links, respectively. The effects of turbulence on pointing control and aperture size, and their influence on the terminal design, are discussed.

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path

Hugo Bergeron, Laura C. Sinclair, William C. Swann, Craig W. Nelson, Jean-Daniel Deschênes, Esther Baumann, Fabrizio R. Giorgetta, Ian Coddington, and Nathan R. Newbury
Optica 3(4) 441-447 (2016)

Effect of atmospheric anisoplanatism on earth-to-satellite time transfer over laser communication links

Aniceto Belmonte, Michael T. Taylor, Leo Hollberg, and Joseph M. Kahn
Opt. Express 25(14) 15676-15686 (2017)

Free-space optical communications research and demonstrations at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

W. S. Rabinovich, C. I. Moore, R. Mahon, P. G. Goetz, H. R. Burris, M. S. Ferraro, J. L. Murphy, L. M. Thomas, G. C. Gilbreath, M. Vilcheck, and M. R. Suite
Appl. Opt. 54(31) F189-F200 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11, 25–31 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Derevianko and M. Pospelov, “Hunting for topological dark matter with atomic clocks,” Nat. Phys. 10, 933–936 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Guerlin, P. Delva, and P. Wolf, “Some fundamental physics experiments using atomic clocks and sensors,” C. R. Phys. 16, 565–575 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329, 1630–1633 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1177–1180 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).
  15. A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.
  17. K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).
  18. F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).
  20. J. Kang, J. Shin, C. Kim, K. Jung, S. Park, and J. Kim, “Few-femtosecond-resolution characterization and suppression of excess timing jitter and drift in indoor atmospheric frequency comb transfer,” Opt. Express 22, 26023–26031 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. Z. Sodnik, J. P. Armengol, R. H. Czichy, and R. Meyer, “Adaptive optics and ESA’s optical ground station,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746406 (2009).
  25. M. W. Wright, J. F. Morris, J. M. Kovalik, K. S. Andrews, M. J. Abrahamson, and A. Biswas, “Adaptive optics correction into single mode fiber for a low Earth orbiting space to ground optical communication link using the OPALS downlink,” Opt. Express 23, 33705–33712 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Takenaka, M. Toyoshima, and Y. Takayama, “Experimental verification of fiber-coupling efficiency for satellite-to-ground atmospheric laser downlinks,” Opt. Express 20, 15301–15308 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. H. Shapiro, “Reciprocity of the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 492–495 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. H. Shapiro, F. G. Walther, and J. A. Greco, “Experimental observations of channel reciprocity in single-mode free-space optical links,” Opt. Express 20, 21635–21644 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Giggenbach, W. Cowley, K. Grant, and N. Perlot, “Experimental verification of the limits of optical channel intensity reciprocity,” Appl. Opt. 51, 3145–3152 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).
  31. D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2004), Vol. 4.
  32. R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1692 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  33. D. L. Fried, “Optical heterodyne detection of an atmospherically distorted signal wave front,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  34. F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.
  35. L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.
  38. Y. Arimoto, “Compact free-space optical terminal for multi-gigabit signal transmissions with a single-mode fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719908 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  39. P. J. Winzer and W. R. Leeb, “Fiber coupling efficiency for random light and its applications to lidar,” Opt. Lett. 23, 986–988 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  40. K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual-comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4, 724–728 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  41. Y. Dikmelik and F. M. Davidson, “Fiber-coupling efficiency for free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4946–4952 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11, 25–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual-comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4, 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

C. Guerlin, P. Delva, and P. Wolf, “Some fundamental physics experiments using atomic clocks and sensors,” C. R. Phys. 16, 565–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. W. Wright, J. F. Morris, J. M. Kovalik, K. S. Andrews, M. J. Abrahamson, and A. Biswas, “Adaptive optics correction into single mode fiber for a low Earth orbiting space to ground optical communication link using the OPALS downlink,” Opt. Express 23, 33705–33712 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Kang, J. Shin, C. Kim, K. Jung, S. Park, and J. Kim, “Few-femtosecond-resolution characterization and suppression of excess timing jitter and drift in indoor atmospheric frequency comb transfer,” Opt. Express 22, 26023–26031 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. E. Calosso, E. Bertacco, D. Calonico, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and A. Godone, “Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1177–1180 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Derevianko and M. Pospelov, “Hunting for topological dark matter with atomic clocks,” Nat. Phys. 10, 933–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Takenaka, M. Toyoshima, and Y. Takayama, “Experimental verification of fiber-coupling efficiency for satellite-to-ground atmospheric laser downlinks,” Opt. Express 20, 15301–15308 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. R. Parenti, J. M. Roth, J. H. Shapiro, F. G. Walther, and J. A. Greco, “Experimental observations of channel reciprocity in single-mode free-space optical links,” Opt. Express 20, 21635–21644 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Giggenbach, W. Cowley, K. Grant, and N. Perlot, “Experimental verification of the limits of optical channel intensity reciprocity,” Appl. Opt. 51, 3145–3152 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329, 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

Z. Sodnik, J. P. Armengol, R. H. Czichy, and R. Meyer, “Adaptive optics and ESA’s optical ground station,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746406 (2009).

Y. Arimoto, “Compact free-space optical terminal for multi-gigabit signal transmissions with a single-mode fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719908 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1998 (1)

1975 (1)

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1692 (1975).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

D. L. Fried, “Optical heterodyne detection of an atmospherically distorted signal wave front,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
[Crossref]

Abgrall, M.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Abrahamson, M. J.

Acef, O.

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Achkar, J.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Akatsuka, T.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Albanese, D.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Al-Masoudi, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Altschul, B.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amy-Klein, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).

Andrews, K. S.

Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Arias, E. F.

Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, Y.

Y. Arimoto, “Compact free-space optical terminal for multi-gigabit signal transmissions with a single-mode fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Armengol, J. P.

Z. Sodnik, J. P. Armengol, R. H. Czichy, and R. Meyer, “Adaptive optics and ESA’s optical ground station,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746406 (2009).

Bailey, Q. G.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Balakrishna, J.

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barnwell, N.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Baumann, E.

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Baynes, F. N.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).

Bergeron, H.

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Bertacco, E.

Bilicki, S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Biswas, A.

Blanchet, L.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bondarescu, M.

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bondarescu, R.

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bongs, K.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bookjans, E.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boschi, L.

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bourez, M. L.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Bouyer, P.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bowden, W.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. M.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brown, D. M.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cacciapuoti, L.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calonico, D.

Calosso, C. E.

Camisard, E.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capozziello, S.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Caro, L.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Carrascilla, M.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Cermak, M.

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual-comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4, 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chardonnet, C.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiodo, N.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. W.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329, 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref]

Churnside, J. H.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2004), Vol. 4.

Clairon, A.

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Clivati, C.

Coddington, I.

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Coddington, I. R.

Conklin, J.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Cossel, K. C.

Costanzo, G. A.

Courde, C.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Cowley, W.

Czichy, R. H.

Z. Sodnik, J. P. Armengol, R. H. Czichy, and R. Meyer, “Adaptive optics and ESA’s optical ground station,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746406 (2009).

Czubla, A.

Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

Davidson, F. M.

Delva, P.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Guerlin, P. Delva, and P. Wolf, “Some fundamental physics experiments using atomic clocks and sensors,” C. R. Phys. 16, 565–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Denker, H.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dennis, M. L.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Derevianko, A.

A. Derevianko and M. Pospelov, “Hunting for topological dark matter with atomic clocks,” Nat. Phys. 10, 933–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deschênes, J.-D.

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Dikmelik, Y.

Djeroud, K.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Djerroud, K.

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Dörscher, S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dougherty, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Douglass, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Droste, S.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Exertier, P.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Fante, R. L.

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1692 (1975).
[Crossref]

Fitz-Coy, N.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Formoso, O.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Fried, D. L.

D. L. Fried, “Optical heterodyne detection of an atmospherically distorted signal wave front,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
[Crossref]

Frittelli, M.

Gaaloul, N.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Giggenbach, D.

Gill, P.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual-comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4, 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Giulini, D.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Godone, A.

Grant, K.

Graves, B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grebing, C.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Greco, J. A.

Grosche, G.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guerlin, C.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Guerlin, P. Delva, and P. Wolf, “Some fundamental physics experiments using atomic clocks and sensors,” C. R. Phys. 16, 565–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guillemot, P.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Häfner, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartwig, J.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hesselius, D.

Hetényi, G.

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hill, I. R.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hobson, R.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hughes, D.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hume, D. B.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329, 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iess, L.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jetzer, P.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

Juarez, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Juarez, J. C.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Jung, K.

Kalaydzhyan, A.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

Kärtner, F. X.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Katori, H.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khader, I.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2004), Vol. 4.

Kim, C.

Kim, J.

Koczwara, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Koke, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kolodzy, P.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kovalik, J. M.

Kronjäger, J.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kuhl, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuroishi, Y.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Landragin, A.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laurent, P.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Le Coq, Y.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Le Targat, R.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).

Leeb, W. R.

Legero, T.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lemonde, P.

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Leon, S.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Levi, F.

Lewandowski, W.

Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lisdat, C.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lodewyck, J.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lopez, O.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).

Lours, M.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Man, N.

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Margolis, H. S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mariey, H.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Marra, G.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Martin, T.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martinot-Lagarde, G.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Meyer, R.

Z. Sodnik, J. P. Armengol, R. H. Czichy, and R. Meyer, “Adaptive optics and ESA’s optical ground station,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746406 (2009).

Meynadier, F.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miyahara, B.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. F.

Mücke, O. D.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Munekane, H.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mura, A.

Nawrocki, J.

Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nelson, C. W.

Newbury, N. R.

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual-comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4, 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Nicolodi, D.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nydam, S.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Oberc, R. L.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohmae, N.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oneto, J. L.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Ozimek, F.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parenti, R. R.

Paris, J.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Park, S.

Peng, M. Y.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Perlot, N.

Petrillo, K.

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Petrillo, K. G.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phillips, R. L.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

Pierron, F.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Pierron, M.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Pike, A.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pike, H. A.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pospelov, M.

A. Derevianko and M. Pospelov, “Hunting for topological dark matter with atomic clocks,” Nat. Phys. 10, 933–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pottie, P.-E.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).

Predehl, K.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quintin, N.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rasel, E.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Raupach, S.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Raupach, S. M. F.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reynaud, S.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Riehle, F.

F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11, 25–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

Robyr, J.-L.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.

Rolland, A.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rosenband, T.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329, 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roth, J. M.

Rothman, L. S.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2004), Vol. 4.

Rovera, D.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Ruben, S.

Safak, K.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Samain, E.

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Santarelli, G.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schiller, S.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schnatz, H.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schubert, C.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Serra, P.

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

Shapiro, J. H.

Shi, C.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

Sinclair, L. C.

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sluz, J.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sluz, J. E.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sodnik, Z.

Z. Sodnik, J. P. Armengol, R. H. Czichy, and R. Meyer, “Adaptive optics and ESA’s optical ground station,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746406 (2009).

Sorrentino, F.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Souza, K. T.

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stadler, B.

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stefani, F.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).

Sterr, U.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stotts, L. B.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

K. C. Cossel, E. M. Waxman, F. R. Giorgetta, M. Cermak, I. R. Coddington, D. Hesselius, S. Ruben, W. C. Swann, G.-W. Truong, G. B. Rieker, and N. R. Newbury, “Open-path dual-comb spectroscopy to an airborne retroreflector,” Optica 4, 724–728 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Bergeron, L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, C. W. Nelson, J.-D. Deschênes, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Tight real-time synchronization of a microwave clock to an optical clock across a turbulent air path,” Optica 3, 441–447 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

Takamoto, M.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takano, T.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takayama, Y.

Takenaka, H.

Tasson, J. D.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tino, G. M.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Torre, J.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Toyoshima, M.

Truong, G.-W.

Tuckey, P.

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ushijima, I.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vallet, G.

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Venkat, R. A.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Viot, H.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

Walther, F. G.

Wang, W.-T.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Waxman, E. M.

Wineland, D. J.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329, 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Wiotte, F.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wolf, P.

C. Guerlin, P. Delva, and P. Wolf, “Some fundamental physics experiments using atomic clocks and sensors,” C. R. Phys. 16, 565–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

Wright, M. W.

Xin, M.

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, A.

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

Young, D. W.

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

B. Altschul, Q. G. Bailey, L. Blanchet, K. Bongs, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Capozziello, N. Gaaloul, D. Giulini, J. Hartwig, L. Iess, P. Jetzer, A. Landragin, E. Rasel, S. Reynaud, S. Schiller, C. Schubert, F. Sorrentino, U. Sterr, J. D. Tasson, G. M. Tino, P. Tuckey, and P. Wolf, “Quantum tests of the Einstein equivalence principle with the STE-QUEST space mission,” Adv. Space Res. 55, 501–524 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. C. Sinclair, W. C. Swann, H. Bergeron, E. Baumann, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, J. C. Juarez, I. Khader, K. G. Petrillo, K. T. Souza, M. L. Dennis, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of clocks through 12  km of strongly turbulent air over a city,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151104 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. R. Phys. (1)

C. Guerlin, P. Delva, and P. Wolf, “Some fundamental physics experiments using atomic clocks and sensors,” C. R. Phys. 16, 565–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Geophys. J. Int. (1)

R. Bondarescu, M. Bondarescu, G. Hetényi, L. Boschi, P. Jetzer, and J. Balakrishna, “Geophysical applicability of atomic clocks: direct continental geoid mapping,” Geophys. J. Int. 191, 78–82 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

M. Xin, K. Şafak, M. Y. Peng, A. Kalaydzhyan, W.-T. Wang, O. D. Mücke, and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond precision multi-kilometer laser-microwave network,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16187 (2017).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

Z. Jiang, A. Czubla, J. Nawrocki, W. Lewandowski, and E. F. Arias, “Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200  ps accuracy,” Metrologia 52, 384–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S. M. F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12443 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

F. Riehle, “Optical clock networks,” Nat. Photonics 11, 25–31 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, M. Takamoto, I. Ushijima, N. Ohmae, T. Akatsuka, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Kuroishi, H. Munekane, B. Miyahara, and H. Katori, “Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 10, 662–666 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Optical two-way time and frequency transfer over free space,” Nat. Photonics 7, 434–438 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Derevianko and M. Pospelov, “Hunting for topological dark matter with atomic clocks,” Nat. Phys. 10, 933–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Bercy, F. Stefani, O. Lopez, C. Chardonnet, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 × 10−21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 061802 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. Delva, J. Lodewyck, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, G. Vallet, R. Le Targat, P.-E. Pottie, C. Guerlin, F. Meynadier, C. Le Poncin-Lafitte, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, W.-K. Lee, N. Quintin, C. Lisdat, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, C. Grebing, G. Grosche, A. Kuhl, S. Raupach, U. Sterr, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, W. Bowden, J. Kronjäger, G. Marra, A. Rolland, F. N. Baynes, H. S. Margolis, and P. Gill, “Test of special relativity using a fiber network of optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 221102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840  km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

J.-D. Deschênes, L. C. Sinclair, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, M. Cermak, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Synchronization of distant optical clocks at the femtosecond level,” Phys. Rev. X 6, 021016 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (2)

R. L. Fante, “Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1669–1692 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. L. Fried, “Optical heterodyne detection of an atmospherically distorted signal wave front,” Proc. IEEE 55, 57–77 (1967).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

L. B. Stotts, B. Stadler, D. Hughes, P. Kolodzy, A. Pike, D. W. Young, J. Sluz, J. Juarez, B. Graves, D. Dougherty, J. Douglass, and T. Martin, “Optical communications in atmospheric turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746403 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. C. Juarez, D. W. Young, R. A. Venkat, D. M. Brown, A. M. Brown, R. L. Oberc, J. E. Sluz, H. A. Pike, and L. B. Stotts, “Analysis of link performance for the FOENEX laser communications system,” Proc. SPIE 8380, 838007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sodnik, J. P. Armengol, R. H. Czichy, and R. Meyer, “Adaptive optics and ESA’s optical ground station,” Proc. SPIE 7464, 746406 (2009).

Y. Arimoto, “Compact free-space optical terminal for multi-gigabit signal transmissions with a single-mode fiber,” Proc. SPIE 7199, 719908 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, “Optical clocks and relativity,” Science 329, 1630–1633 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, P. Laurent, F. Pierron, D. Rovera, J. Torre, M. Abgrall, J. Achkar, D. Albanese, C. Courde, K. Djeroud, M. L. Bourez, S. Leon, H. Mariey, G. Martinot-Lagarde, J. L. Oneto, J. Paris, M. Pierron, and H. Viot, “Time transfer by laser link—T2L2: current status and future experiments,” in Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS) (2011), pp. 1–6.

K. Djerroud, E. Samain, A. Clairon, O. Acef, N. Man, P. Lemonde, and P. Wolf, “A coherent free space optical link for long distance clock comparison, navigation, and communication: the mini-doll project,” in International Conference on Space Optics (2010).

J. Conklin, N. Barnwell, L. Caro, M. Carrascilla, O. Formoso, S. Nydam, P. Serra, and N. Fitz-Coy, “Optical time transfer for future disaggregated small satellite navigation systems,” in AIAAUSU Conference on Small Satellites (2014).

W.-K. Lee, F. Stefani, A. Bercy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and P.-E. Pottie, “Hybrid fiber links for accurate optical frequency comparisons,” arXiv: 170201687 (2017).

K. Petrillo, M. L. Dennis, J. C. Juarez, E. Baumann, H. Bergeron, I. Coddington, J.-D. Deschênes, F. R. Giorgetta, N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Enhanced link availability for FSO time-frequency transfer using adaptive optic terminals,” in Atmospheric Propagation XIII (2016), pp. 9833–9838.

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2005).

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, “Atmospheric optics,” in OSA Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 2004), Vol. 4.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Optical links over the city of Boulder. The launch/receive terminals reside in a rooftop laboratory at NIST, and the link intermediate points consist of remotely steered mirrors that return the signal to NIST. The Kohler Mesa path is 1-km long, for a 2-km round trip. This is doubled to 4 km via a second fold mirror in the rooftop laboratory. The Valmont Butte path is 6 km for a 12-km round trip. Image from Google Earth.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Contour plot of the Fried parameter (maximum useful aperture diameter) in centimeters for a single-mode optical link as a function of turbulence strength, measured on the ground, and the horizontal distance along the ground. The path itself is assumed to be either (a) along the ground or (b) to slant vertically upward to an Aerial (or mountaintop) platform at 1-km elevation. These calculations assume a standard Hufnagel-Valley profile [17] and an upper atmosphere wind speed of 21 m/s.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. FSO terminal (a) design and (b) photo. The signal (comb light) path is fully bi-directional; the transmitted and received comb signals pass through the same fiber entering the terminal. The beacons are bi-directional (and co-collimated with the signal) up to the filter, where the received beacon is separated and directed onto a quadrant detector. The quadrant detector signal acts on the galvo mirror to center the received beacon onto the detector. The received comb signal is then efficiently passively coupled into its fiber.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Left panel: results for a 2-km link to Kohler mesa under low turbulence. Right panel: results for a 4-km link to Kohler mesa under moderate turbulence. (a) Folded link geometry (see also Fig. 1). (b) Received beam spot viewed directly in front of the terminals, on a 5-cm grid. The dark circles are holes through which the beams exit and enter the terminals. (c) Received power (left axis) and percentage link transmittance (right axis) versus time. Received power in both terminals is shown in red and orange, though the traces lie on top of one another, as expected for a single-mode link because of reciprocity.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Results at 12 km for a beacon beam which is (a) co-aligned but differentially divergent from the signal light and (b) co-aligned and co-collimated with the signal light. The launched signal power is 3.5 mW and the turbulence strength is Cn21014  m2/3. For a co-collimated beacon as opposed to a divergent beacon, the link loss is reduced by a factor of 10 and the out-of-loop time offset correspondingly improves from 50 fs peak-to-peak to 8 fs peak-to-peak.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Received signal power (red, orange) and beacon power (blue, green) into the left and right terminals, respectively, for an aperture of (a) 48-mm diameter and (b) 25-mm diameter. For these data at 4-km link and Cn2=1.5×1014  m2/3, the Fried parameter is 22 mm, leading to the high correlation observed for the 25-mm diameter aperture. (c) The link availability (red squares) and correlation between the signal and beacon light (blue triangles) versus aperture diameter.

Metrics