Abstract

The power efficiency, spectral characteristics, and output directionality of light emitting diodes (LEDs) used for lighting and video display may be tailored by integrating nanostructures that interact with photon emitters. In this work, we demonstrate an approach in which visible-wavelength-emitting quantum dots (QDs) are integrated within a polymer-based photonic crystal (PC) and excited by an ultraviolet-emitting LED. The PC design incorporates two interleaved regions, each with distinct periods in orthogonal directions. The structure enables simultaneous resonant coupling of ultraviolet excitation photons to the QDs and visible QD emission at two different wavelengths to efficiently extract photons normal to the PC surface. The combined excitation and extraction enhancements result in a 5.8X increase in the QD output intensity. Further, we demonstrate multiple QD-doped PCs combined on a single surface to optimally couple with distinct populations of QDs, offering a means for blending color output and directionality of multiple wavelengths. Devices are fabricated upon flexible plastic surfaces by a manufacturable replica molding approach.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2013 (1)

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16, 21626–21640 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Band gaps and leaky-wave effects in resonant photonic-crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 680–694 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Barth, A. Gruber, and F. Cichos, “Spectral and angular redistribution of photoluminescence near a photonic stop band,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085129 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1992 (1)

R. Magnusson and S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

1951 (1)

Abbott, S. J.

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barth, M.

M. Barth, A. Gruber, and F. Cichos, “Spectral and angular redistribution of photoluminescence near a photonic stop band,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085129 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, R.

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

Block, I. D.

Capasso, R.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

Charlton, M. D. B.

Cho, K.-S.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Choi, B. L.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chow, E.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16, 21626–21640 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cichos, F.

M. Barth, A. Gruber, and F. Cichos, “Spectral and angular redistribution of photoluminescence near a photonic stop band,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085129 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, B. T.

F. Yang and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced quantum dot optical down-conversion using asymmetric 2D photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 19, 3908–3918 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16, 21626–21640 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110 (2006).
[Crossref]

David, A.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

David, J. N.

J. N. David, “Electronic structure in semiconductor nanocrystals,” in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2010), pp. 63–96.

Dawson, M. D.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, I. M. Watson, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, E. Gu, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Emission characteristics of photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3233–3239 (2011).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

De Nicola, S.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Devore, J. R.

Diana, F. S.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Englund, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ganesh, N.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16, 21626–21640 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, I. M. Watson, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, E. Gu, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Emission characteristics of photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3233–3239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gruber, A.

M. Barth, A. Gruber, and F. Cichos, “Spectral and angular redistribution of photoluminescence near a photonic stop band,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085129 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, I. M. Watson, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, E. Gu, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Emission characteristics of photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3233–3239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, J. Y.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hessel, A.

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, G.

Ip, J.

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jang, E.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Johnson, N. P.

Johnson, S. G.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Joo, W.-J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

Kim, B.-K.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. M.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-H.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kodali, A. K.

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laurand, N.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, E. K.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Macintyre, D. S.

Magnusson, R.

Malyarchuk, V.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16, 21626–21640 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Manna, L.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, I. M. Watson, F. Rahman, D. S. Macintyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, E. Gu, N. P. Johnson, R. M. De La Rue, M. D. Dawson, S. J. Abbott, M. D. B. Charlton, and M. Tillin, “Emission characteristics of photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3233–3239 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mathias, P. C.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16, 21626–21640 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Meinel, I.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mormile, P.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakaoka, T.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nenna, G.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oliner, A. A.

Parsons, K.

Petroff, P. M.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petti, L.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rahman, F.

Rippa, M.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schulmerich, M.

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. D.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soares, J. A.

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tillin, M.

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Waks, E.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

R. Magnusson and S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

Watson, S.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

Xiong, C.

Yamamoto, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

Yen, G.

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zanella, M.

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

N. Ganesh, I. D. Block, P. C. Mathias, W. Zhang, E. Chow, V. Malyarchuk, and B. T. Cunningham, “Leaky-mode assisted fluorescence extraction application to fluorescence enhancement biosensors,” Opt. Express 16, 21626–21640 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. K. Kodali, M. Schulmerich, J. Ip, G. Yen, B. T. Cunningham, and R. Bhargava, “Narrowband midinfrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance,” Anal. Chem. 82, 5697–5706 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Hybrid organic/GaN photonic crystal light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 141122 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Magnusson and S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

N. Ganesh and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic-crystal near-ultraviolet reflectance filters fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071110 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs—designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6, 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

M. Rippa, R. Capasso, P. Mormile, S. De Nicola, M. Zanella, L. Manna, G. Nenna, and L. Petti, “Bragg extraction of light in 2D photonic Thue–Morse quasicrystals patterned in active CdSe/CdS nanorod-polymer nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 5, 331–336 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, and B. T. Cunningham, “Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 515–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Barth, A. Gruber, and F. Cichos, “Spectral and angular redistribution of photoluminescence near a photonic stop band,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085129 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vučković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. N. David, “Electronic structure in semiconductor nanocrystals,” in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2010), pp. 63–96.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. 2D PC device structure. (a) A cross-sectional schematic of the device structure in which a backlight UV LED source illuminates multiple regions. Each region contains the same QD mix embedded into the polymer layer of the PC grating. However, the two regions have distinct PC structures to enhance and outcouple separate wavelengths of QD emission. (b) A top down schematic of the two interleaved regions of the device with TiO 2 and their respective feature sizes. (c) An SEM of the replica molding master. The inset shows the pillars of the two regions at diagonal corners within the master structure. (d) SEM images of both Region 1 (left) and Region 2 (right) from the device after TiO 2 has been deposited to form the PC.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Computer-simulated transmission spectra of target resonances occurring with an unpolarized source at normal incidence for Regions 1 and 2. Because of the variation in the refractive index values of TiO 2 at different wavelengths, the simulations were run with the appropriate values for each wavelength range.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Impact of angle on QD extraction measured with and without a PC structure present. In the inset, a scan of the output intensities for λ = 450 550 nm across a range of angles is shown in a device with a 20 nm TiO 2 thin film coating. In the main plot, the angle dependence of the output at λ = 505 nm is shown. With no PC present, the output emission of the quantum dots is lower. In the structure with the PC, there is a strong angle-dependent enhancement of a factor of 2 X centered at 2  deg off normal incidence, representing the angle and wavelength combination at which the QD emission is enhanced through resonance with the PC.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Comparison of the angle dependence of excitation at different stages of TiO 2 deposition, as the thickness enables tuning of the resonance conditions. (a) Measured output intensity with no PC structure. (b) Measured enhancement from a PC with a 43 nm thick TiO 2 layer. (c) Measured enhancement from a PC with an 85 nm think layer of TiO 2 . (d) Transmission spectrum with an 85 nm think layer of TiO 2 confirms the locations of the peak resonance as measured by the varied excitation output intensity in (c).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Resonance conditions for the UV and visible wavelengths occur in orthogonal directions, so in (a), the transmission measured only with angle variation along θ has angle dependence in the coupling to the UV wavelengths. In (b), the Φ variation leads to angle-dependent coupling with the visible wavelengths. The features of the photonic band diagram are less distinct for λ < 450 nm because the broadband light source emits visible wavelengths λ > 450 nm .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Photographs of quantum dot enhancement within the checkerboard of PC regions. (a) The QD emission at λ = 490 nm is brighter in Region 1, where both the excitation and extraction are being enhanced, compared to Region 2, in which only enhanced excitation occurs. (b) A sample with a mix of QDs emitting at λ = 490 nm and λ = 590 nm . The yellow QDs in Region 2 dominate the output, because the peak extraction enhancement for λ = 490 nm in Region 1 is directed away from normal, resulting in reduced intensity when observed from above the PC.

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