Abstract

This paper presents the results of optical diffraction properties of multimicrograting structures fabricated by e-beam lithography. Multimicrograting consist of arrays of hexagonally shaped cells containing periodic one-dimensional (1D) grating lines in different orientations and arrayed to form large area patterns. We analyzed the optical diffraction properties of multimicrogratings by studying the individual effects of the several periodic elements of multimicrogratings. The observed optical diffraction pattern is shown to be the combined effect of the periodic and non-periodic elements that define the multimicrogratings and the interaction between different elements. We measured the total transverse electric (TE) diffraction efficiency of multimicrogratings and found it to be 32.1%, which is closely related to the diffraction efficiency of 1D periodic grating lines of the same characteristics, measured to be 33.7%. Beam profiles of the optical diffraction patterns from multimicrogratings are captured with a CCD sensor technique. Interference fringes were observed under certain conditions formed by multimicrograting beams interfering with each other. These diffraction structures may find applications in sensing, nanometrology, and optical interconnects.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347–353 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. H. Wong, M. C. Gupta, B. Robins, and T. L. Levendusky, “Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2342–2344 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “MEMS diffractive optical nanoruler technology for tipbased nanofabrication and metrology,” in IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2009), Sorrento, 2009, pp. 547–550.
  9. N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology optical ruler imaging system using diffraction from a quasiperiodic structure,” Opt. Express 18, 20827–20838 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology using a quasiperiodic pattern diffraction optical ruler,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 865–870 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. C. Gupta and S. T. Peng, “Diffraction characteristics of surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2911–2917 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811–818 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780–1787 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. Pesty, P. Garoche, and S. Dorel, “Modulation of the beam intensity for high-dynamic-range low energy electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3021–3026 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. Langer, A. Hochreiner, P. Burgholzer, and T. Berer, “A webcam in bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infrared,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 571–575 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

G. Langer, A. Hochreiner, P. Burgholzer, and T. Berer, “A webcam in bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infrared,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 571–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology optical ruler imaging system using diffraction from a quasiperiodic structure,” Opt. Express 18, 20827–20838 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology using a quasiperiodic pattern diffraction optical ruler,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 865–870 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347–353 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. H. Wong, M. C. Gupta, B. Robins, and T. L. Levendusky, “Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2342–2344 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. Pesty, P. Garoche, and S. Dorel, “Modulation of the beam intensity for high-dynamic-range low energy electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3021–3026 (2002).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. C. Gupta and S. T. Peng, “Diffraction characteristics of surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2911–2917 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780–1787 (1986).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811–818 (1981).
[Crossref]

Berer, T.

G. Langer, A. Hochreiner, P. Burgholzer, and T. Berer, “A webcam in bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infrared,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 571–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burgholzer, P.

G. Langer, A. Hochreiner, P. Burgholzer, and T. Berer, “A webcam in bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infrared,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 571–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Butts, M. D.

R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cohen, O.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cournoyer, J. R.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deng, T.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dilanian, R. A.

S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, Z.

R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dorel, S.

F. Pesty, P. Garoche, and S. Dorel, “Modulation of the beam intensity for high-dynamic-range low energy electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3021–3026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dovidenko, K.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garoche, P.

F. Pesty, P. Garoche, and S. Dorel, “Modulation of the beam intensity for high-dynamic-range low energy electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3021–3026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gaudiosi, D. M.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780–1787 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811–818 (1981).
[Crossref]

Genovese, S. E.

R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ghiradella, H.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ghiradella, H. T.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gupta, M. C.

T. H. Wong, M. C. Gupta, B. Robins, and T. L. Levendusky, “Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2342–2344 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. C. Gupta and S. T. Peng, “Diffraction characteristics of surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2911–2917 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hädrich, S.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hannaford, P.

S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haruyama, Y.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hochreiner, A.

G. Langer, A. Hochreiner, P. Burgholzer, and T. Berer, “A webcam in bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infrared,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 571–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holtsnider, J.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoshino, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kaito, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kanda, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lal, A.

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology using a quasiperiodic pattern diffraction optical ruler,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 865–870 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology optical ruler imaging system using diffraction from a quasiperiodic structure,” Opt. Express 18, 20827–20838 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “MEMS diffractive optical nanoruler technology for tipbased nanofabrication and metrology,” in IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2009), Sorrento, 2009, pp. 547–550.

Langer, G.

G. Langer, A. Hochreiner, P. Burgholzer, and T. Berer, “A webcam in bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infrared,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 571–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Levendusky, T. L.

T. H. Wong, M. C. Gupta, B. Robins, and T. L. Levendusky, “Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2342–2344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsui, S.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miao, J.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of metallic surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1780–1787 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 811–818 (1981).
[Crossref]

Morris, W. G.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Olson, E.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Parker, A. R.

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347–353 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paul, A.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peng, S. T.

M. C. Gupta and S. T. Peng, “Diffraction characteristics of surface-relief gratings,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2911–2917 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pesty, F.

F. Pesty, P. Garoche, and S. Dorel, “Modulation of the beam intensity for high-dynamic-range low energy electron diffraction,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3021–3026 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pollock, C. R.

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology using a quasiperiodic pattern diffraction optical ruler,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 865–870 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology optical ruler imaging system using diffraction from a quasiperiodic structure,” Opt. Express 18, 20827–20838 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “MEMS diffractive optical nanoruler technology for tipbased nanofabrication and metrology,” in IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2009), Sorrento, 2009, pp. 547–550.

Potyrailo, R. A.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pris, A. D.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Robins, B.

T. H. Wong, M. C. Gupta, B. Robins, and T. L. Levendusky, “Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2342–2344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Salmassi, F.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sandberg, R. L.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, C.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Surman, C. l.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Teichmann, S.

S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tobey, R. I.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Townley, H. E.

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347–353 (2007).
[Crossref]

Utturkar, Y.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Dao, L.

S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vert, A.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vertiatchikh, A.

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, T. Kaito, and S. Matsui, “Optical measurement and fabrication from a morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 570–575 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wong, T. H.

T. H. Wong, M. C. Gupta, B. Robins, and T. L. Levendusky, “Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2342–2344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yoshimizu, N.

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology optical ruler imaging system using diffraction from a quasiperiodic structure,” Opt. Express 18, 20827–20838 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology using a quasiperiodic pattern diffraction optical ruler,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 865–870 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “MEMS diffractive optical nanoruler technology for tipbased nanofabrication and metrology,” in IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2009), Sorrento, 2009, pp. 547–550.

Zalyubovskiy, S.

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

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S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

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S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

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S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
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R. A. Potyrailo, Z. Ding, M. D. Butts, S. E. Genovese, and T. Deng, “Selective chemical sensing using structurally colored core-shell colloidal crystal films,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 815–822 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Teichmann, B. Chen, R. A. Dilanian, P. Hannaford, and L. Van Dao, “Experimental aspects of multiharmonic-order coherent diffractive imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 023106 (2010).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology using a quasiperiodic pattern diffraction optical ruler,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 19, 865–870 (2010).
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[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Zhu, D. Zhang, Z. Chen, J. Gu, W. Li, H. Jiang, and G. Zhou, “A simple and effective approach toward biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings,” Nanotechnology 20, 315303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. R. Parker and H. E. Townley, “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 347–353 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. A. Potyrailo, H. Ghiradella, A. Vertiatchikh, K. Dovidenko, J. R. Cournoyer, and E. Olson, “Morpho butterfly wing scales demonstrate highly selective vapour response,” Nat. Photonics 1, 123–128 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. D. Pris, Y. Utturkar, C. l. Surman, W. G. Morris, A. Vert, S. Zalyubovskiy, T. Deng, H. T. Ghiradella, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Toward high-speed imaging of infrared photons with bio-inspired nanoarchitectures,” Nat. Photonics 6, 195–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “Nanometrology optical ruler imaging system using diffraction from a quasiperiodic structure,” Opt. Express 18, 20827–20838 (2010).
[Crossref]

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G. Langer, A. Hochreiner, P. Burgholzer, and T. Berer, “A webcam in bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infrared,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 51, 571–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

T. H. Wong, M. C. Gupta, B. Robins, and T. L. Levendusky, “Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2342–2344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

N. Yoshimizu, A. Lal, and C. R. Pollock, “MEMS diffractive optical nanoruler technology for tipbased nanofabrication and metrology,” in IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS 2009), Sorrento, 2009, pp. 547–550.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Micrograting repeating cell with six different orientations. s is the hexagon side dimension and d is the grating period. (b) Array of multimicrogratings, with the red parallelogram defining the unit cell used to form the array, with sides a and b . (c) Hexagonal shape of the micrograting apertures. (d) Large area periodic structure produced by the multiple hexagonal apertures. (e) 1D gratings with different orientations. (f) Lattice produced by the replicating unit cell containing the microgratings.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fabrication flow charts for samples with 1D and multimicrograting patterns and for samples with hexagonal apertures.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Side view of experimental setup for diffraction efficiency measurement using integrating sphere.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEM micrographs of fabricated samples with (a) 1D grating with period of 2.0 μm and (b) array of hexagonal apertures with hexagon side dimension of 20 μm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) SEM micrograph of fabricated silicon sample with multimicrogratings with grating periods of 2.0 μm. Magnified details of regions around the edge of (a) are shown in (b) and (c).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Laser confocal micrographs of micrograting pattern with 2.0 μm periodicity. (a) Top view. (b) 3D height profile. (c) Linescan profile.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Observed diffraction pattern of sample with arrays of hexagonal apertures with hexagon side dimensions 20 μm and laser light with λ = 532 nm projected on a screen located 20 cm from the sample. The dark area in the center corresponds to the hole on the screen. (b) Details of the center area of the diffraction pattern are projected on a screen 300 cm away. (c) Simulated diffraction pattern for a hexagon, such as the one shown in the insert.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Observed diffraction pattern for multimicrograting on silicon with 2.0 μm period illuminated with laser with λ = 532 nm and projected on a screen 20 cm from the diffracting sample at normal incidence. The irregularly shaped area in the center corresponds to the hole in the screen onto which the diffraction pattern was projected. (b) Detail of one of the twelve spots shown in (a). (c) The same spot in (b) but projected on a screen 300 cm away, to show finer details.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Schematic of light distribution from fabricated samples for (a) 1D gratings, (b) arrays of hexagonal apertures, and (c) multimicrogratings.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Beam profiles obtained with CCD sensor at a sample-to-sensor distance of 30 cm and with a probing beam of 1.2 mm. (a) Beam profile for a sample with a 1D grating pattern. (b) Slice along blue dotted line of (a) to show raw beam profile and Gaussian fit to obtain FWHM. (c) Beam profile for a sample with multimicrograting pattern. (d) Slice along blue dotted line to show beam profile and Gaussian fit to obtain FWHM.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Beam profiles captured with a CCD sensor with an expanded probing beam for at a sample-to-sensor distance of 30 cm. (a) For a sample with 1D grating pattern. (b) For a sample with multimicrogratings. (c) Slice profile of the interference fringes observed in (b).

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Design Parameters and Calculated Diffraction Efficiencies

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Table 2. Integrating Sphere Measurement Calibration

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Table 3. Measured Total Diffraction Efficiency of Fabricated Samples

Equations (1)

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d ( sin θ i + sin θ d ) = m λ .

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