Abstract

Accurate measurements of optical properties of multilayer (ML) mirrors and chemical compositions of interdiffusion layers are particularly challenging to date. In this work, an innovative and nondestructive experimental characterization method for multilayers is discussed. The method is based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements performed on a wide grazing incidence angular range at an energy near the absorption resonance edge of low-Z elements in the ML components. This experimental method combined with the underlying physical phenomenon of abrupt changes of optical constants near EUV resonance edges enables us to characterize optical and structural properties of multilayers with high sensitivity. A major advantage of the method is to perform detailed quantitative analysis of buried interfaces of multilayer structures in a nondestructive and nonimaging setup. Coatings of Si/Mo multilayers on a Si substrate with period d=16.4nm, number of bilayers N=25, and different capping structures are investigated. Stoichiometric compositions of Si-on-Mo and Mo-on-Si interface diffusion layers are derived. Effects of surface oxidation reactions and carbon contaminations on the optical constants of capping layers and the impact of neighboring atoms’ interactions on optical responses of Si and Mo layers are discussed.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

S. M. Giday, P. Zuppella, M. G. Pelizzo, and P. Nicolosi, “Exploring EUV near absorption edge optical constants for enhanced and sensitive grazing incidence reflectivity,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 886111 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Muller, R. G. Marsden, O. C. St Cyr, and H. R. Gilbert, “Solar orbiter exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection,” Solar Phys. 285, 25–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. A. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, R. van de Kruijs, S. N. Yakunin, E. Louis, A. M. Yakunin, V. Banine, S. Muellender, and F. Bijkerk, “Short period La/B and LaN/B multilayer mirrors for similar to 6.8 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express 21, 29894–29904 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. Banyay, L. Juschkin, E. Bersch, D. Franca, M. Liehr, and A. Diebold, “Cross characterization of ultrathin interlayers in HfO2 high-k stacks by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, and grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041506 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. A. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, A. M. Yakunin, S. Muellender, and F. Bijkerk, “Wavelength selection for multilayer coatings for lithography generation beyond extreme ultraviolet,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 11, 040501 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. A. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, A. M. Yakunin, S. Muellender, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral properties of La/B-based multilayer mirrors near the boron K absorption edge,” Opt. Express 20, 11778–11786 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. Nayak and G. S. Lodha, “Optical response near the soft x-ray absorption edges and structural studies of low optical contrast system using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 2011, 649153 (2011).

J. Serafinczuk, J. Pietrucha, G. Schroeder, and T. P. Gotszalk, “Thin film thickness determination using x-ray reflectivity and Savitzky–Golay algorithm,” Opt. Appl. 41, 315–322 (2011).

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, P. Nicolosi, D. L. Windt, E. Gullikson, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Capped Mo/Si multilayers with improved performance at 30.4 nm for future solar missions,” Opt. Express 19, 13963–13973 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Lemoine, J. P. Quinn, P. D. Maguire, and J. A. D. McLaughlin, “Measuring the thickness of ultra-thin diamond-like carbon films,” Carbon 44, 2617–2624 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. D. Binda and F. E. Zocchi, “Genetic algorithm optimization of x-ray multilayer coatings,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 97–108 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

2000 (3)

A. Gibaud and S. Hazra, “X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering,” Current Sci. 78, 1467–1477 (2000).

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

A. Ulyanenkov, K. Omote, and J. Harada, “The genetic algorithm: refinement of x-ray reflectivity data from multilayers and thin films,” Physica B 283, 237–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. Oetzel and G. Heger, “Laboratory x-ray powder diffraction: a comparison of different geometries with special attention to the usage of the CuK alpha doublet,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 799–807 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt, “IMD–software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Yaqoob, “Parameter estimation in x-ray astronomy revisited,” Astrophys. J. 500, 893–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Soufli and E. M. Gullikson, “Absolute photoabsorption measurements of molybdenum in the range 60–930 eV for optical constant determination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1713–1719 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions–photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection AT E = 50–30,000 EV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in x-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 208, 177–190 (1976).
[Crossref]

Abbo, L.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Alameda, J.

Anderson, C. N.

Andre, J. M.

K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andretta, V.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Antonucci, E.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Appourchaux, T.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

Auchere, F.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, N. Nguyen, J. Alameda, J. C. Robinson, M. Malinowski, E. Gullikson, A. Aquila, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Design and performance of capping layers for EUV multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5750–5758 (2003).

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. B. Mirkarimii, S. Bajt, and D. G. Stearns, “Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers,” PatentsWO2001040871 A1 (7June2001).

Bajt, S. A.

Baker, S.

D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banine, V.

Banyay, M.

M. Banyay, L. Juschkin, E. Bersch, D. Franca, M. Liehr, and A. Diebold, “Cross characterization of ultrathin interlayers in HfO2 high-k stacks by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, and grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barbee, T. W.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bemporad, A.

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J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Bersch, E.

M. Banyay, L. Juschkin, E. Bersch, D. Franca, M. Liehr, and A. Diebold, “Cross characterization of ultrathin interlayers in HfO2 high-k stacks by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, and grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041506 (2012).
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M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in x-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 208, 177–190 (1976).
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D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
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D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions–photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection AT E = 50–30,000 EV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
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Diebold, A.

M. Banyay, L. Juschkin, E. Bersch, D. Franca, M. Liehr, and A. Diebold, “Cross characterization of ultrathin interlayers in HfO2 high-k stacks by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, and grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041506 (2012).
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S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

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J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
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D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
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D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

Focardi, M.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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M. G. Sertsu, A. Giglia, L. Juschkin, and P. Nicolosi, “Irradiation of low energy ions damage analysis on multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9511, 95110P (2015).
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S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

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J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
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Gullikson, E. M.

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D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
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J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions–photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection AT E = 50–30,000 EV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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M. G. Sertsu, A. Giglia, L. Juschkin, and P. Nicolosi, “Irradiation of low energy ions damage analysis on multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9511, 95110P (2015).
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M. Banyay, L. Juschkin, E. Bersch, D. Franca, M. Liehr, and A. Diebold, “Cross characterization of ultrathin interlayers in HfO2 high-k stacks by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, and grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041506 (2012).
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M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

Kennedy, T.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
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D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
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M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in x-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 208, 177–190 (1976).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
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K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
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K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
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Liehr, M.

M. Banyay, L. Juschkin, E. Bersch, D. Franca, M. Liehr, and A. Diebold, “Cross characterization of ultrathin interlayers in HfO2 high-k stacks by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, and grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041506 (2012).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Makhotkin, I. A.

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Malvezzi, M.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Martinez-Galarce, D.

D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
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Massone, G.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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McLaughlin, J. A. D.

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Mirkarimi, P. B.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
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Mirkarimii, P. B.

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Mirone, A.

D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
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Miyakawa, R.

Modi, M. H.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Determination of layer structure in Mo/Si multilayers using soft x-ray reflectivity,” Physica B 325, 272–280 (2003).
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Monaco, G.

Montcalm, C.

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
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Moses, J. D.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Muellender, S.

Muller, D.

D. Muller, R. G. Marsden, O. C. St Cyr, and H. R. Gilbert, “Solar orbiter exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection,” Solar Phys. 285, 25–70 (2013).
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Naletto, G.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Nandedkar, R. V.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Determination of layer structure in Mo/Si multilayers using soft x-ray reflectivity,” Physica B 325, 272–280 (2003).
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Naulleau, P. P.

Nayak, M.

M. Nayak and G. S. Lodha, “Optical response near the soft x-ray absorption edges and structural studies of low optical contrast system using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 2011, 649153 (2011).

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Determination of layer structure in Mo/Si multilayers using soft x-ray reflectivity,” Physica B 325, 272–280 (2003).
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Nguyen, N.

Nguyen, T.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
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Nicolini, G.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Nicolosi, P.

M. G. Sertsu, A. Giglia, L. Juschkin, and P. Nicolosi, “Irradiation of low energy ions damage analysis on multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9511, 95110P (2015).
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S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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S. M. Giday, P. Zuppella, M. G. Pelizzo, and P. Nicolosi, “Exploring EUV near absorption edge optical constants for enhanced and sensitive grazing incidence reflectivity,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 886111 (2013).
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A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, P. Nicolosi, D. L. Windt, E. Gullikson, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Capped Mo/Si multilayers with improved performance at 30.4 nm for future solar missions,” Opt. Express 19, 13963–13973 (2011).
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M. G. Pelizzo, M. Suman, G. Monaco, P. Nicolosi, and D. L. Windt, “High performance EUV multilayer structures insensitive to capping layer optical parameters,” Opt. Express 16, 15228–15237 (2008).
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Nikolaev, K. V.

Oetzel, M.

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A. Ulyanenkov, K. Omote, and J. Harada, “The genetic algorithm: refinement of x-ray reflectivity data from multilayers and thin films,” Physica B 283, 237–241 (2000).
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Pancrazzi, M.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Pareschi, G.

D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pasquali, L.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

Pedio, M.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

Pelizzo, M. G.

S. M. Giday, P. Zuppella, M. G. Pelizzo, and P. Nicolosi, “Exploring EUV near absorption edge optical constants for enhanced and sensitive grazing incidence reflectivity,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 886111 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, P. Nicolosi, D. L. Windt, E. Gullikson, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Capped Mo/Si multilayers with improved performance at 30.4 nm for future solar missions,” Opt. Express 19, 13963–13973 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. G. Pelizzo, M. Suman, G. Monaco, P. Nicolosi, and D. L. Windt, “High performance EUV multilayer structures insensitive to capping layer optical parameters,” Opt. Express 16, 15228–15237 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

Pelizzo, M.-G.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
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Pershin, Y. P.

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Pfiffner, D.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
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Pietrucha, J.

J. Serafinczuk, J. Pietrucha, G. Schroeder, and T. P. Gotszalk, “Thin film thickness determination using x-ray reflectivity and Savitzky–Golay algorithm,” Opt. Appl. 41, 315–322 (2011).

Poletto, L.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Poltseva, O. V.

A. I. Fedorenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, D. L. Voronov, and S. A. Yulin, “Structure of interfaces in multilayers,” in Interfacial Engineering for Optimized Properties, C. L. Briant, C. B. Carter, and E. L. Hall, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 249–254.

Ponomarenko, A. G.

A. I. Fedorenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, D. L. Voronov, and S. A. Yulin, “Structure of interfaces in multilayers,” in Interfacial Engineering for Optimized Properties, C. L. Briant, C. B. Carter, and E. L. Hall, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 249–254.

Prast, E.

D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quinn, J. P.

P. Lemoine, J. P. Quinn, P. D. Maguire, and J. A. D. McLaughlin, “Measuring the thickness of ultra-thin diamond-like carbon films,” Carbon 44, 2617–2624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Renotte, E.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. C.

Rochus, P.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Romoli, M.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Rossi, L.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Salmassi, F.

Schmidt, M. A.

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schmutz, W.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, G.

J. Serafinczuk, J. Pietrucha, G. Schroeder, and T. P. Gotszalk, “Thin film thickness determination using x-ray reflectivity and Savitzky–Golay algorithm,” Opt. Appl. 41, 315–322 (2011).

Schuehled, U.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Selvaggi, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

Serafinczuk, J.

J. Serafinczuk, J. Pietrucha, G. Schroeder, and T. P. Gotszalk, “Thin film thickness determination using x-ray reflectivity and Savitzky–Golay algorithm,” Opt. Appl. 41, 315–322 (2011).

Sertsu, M. G.

M. G. Sertsu, A. Giglia, L. Juschkin, and P. Nicolosi, “Irradiation of low energy ions damage analysis on multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9511, 95110P (2015).
[Crossref]

Sinha, A. K.

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Determination of layer structure in Mo/Si multilayers using soft x-ray reflectivity,” Physica B 325, 272–280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smith, P.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soufli, R.

Spadaro, D.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Spiga, D.

D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E.

D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E. A.

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

St Cyr, O. C.

D. Muller, R. G. Marsden, O. C. St Cyr, and H. R. Gilbert, “Solar orbiter exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection,” Solar Phys. 285, 25–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. B. Mirkarimii, S. Bajt, and D. G. Stearns, “Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers,” PatentsWO2001040871 A1 (7June2001).

Suman, M.

Sweeney, D. W.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tandy, J.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tarrio, C.

Telloni, D.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Teriaca, L.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

Tondello, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

Ulyanenkov, A.

A. Ulyanenkov, K. Omote, and J. Harada, “The genetic algorithm: refinement of x-ray reflectivity data from multilayers and thin films,” Physica B 283, 237–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Underwood, J. H.

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

Uslenghi, M.

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

van de Kruijs, R.

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

Vernani, D.

D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
[Crossref]

Voronov, D. L.

A. I. Fedorenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, D. L. Voronov, and S. A. Yulin, “Structure of interfaces in multilayers,” in Interfacial Engineering for Optimized Properties, C. L. Briant, C. B. Carter, and E. L. Hall, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 249–254.

Walton, C. C.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. S.

K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wedowski, M.

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, P. Nicolosi, D. L. Windt, E. Gullikson, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Capped Mo/Si multilayers with improved performance at 30.4 nm for future solar missions,” Opt. Express 19, 13963–13973 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. G. Pelizzo, M. Suman, G. Monaco, P. Nicolosi, and D. L. Windt, “High performance EUV multilayer structures insensitive to capping layer optical parameters,” Opt. Express 16, 15228–15237 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt, “IMD–software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yakunin, A. M.

Yakunin, S. N.

Yaqoob, T.

T. Yaqoob, “Parameter estimation in x-ray astronomy revisited,” Astrophys. J. 500, 893–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yulin, S. A.

A. I. Fedorenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, D. L. Voronov, and S. A. Yulin, “Structure of interfaces in multilayers,” in Interfacial Engineering for Optimized Properties, C. L. Briant, C. B. Carter, and E. L. Hall, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 249–254.

Zhou, S. K.

K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. T.

K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhukov, A.

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zocchi, F. E.

P. D. Binda and F. E. Zocchi, “Genetic algorithm optimization of x-ray multilayer coatings,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 97–108 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zoethout, E.

Zuppella, P.

S. M. Giday, P. Zuppella, M. G. Pelizzo, and P. Nicolosi, “Exploring EUV near absorption edge optical constants for enhanced and sensitive grazing incidence reflectivity,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 886111 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, P. Nicolosi, D. L. Windt, E. Gullikson, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Capped Mo/Si multilayers with improved performance at 30.4 nm for future solar missions,” Opt. Express 19, 13963–13973 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Astrophys. J. (2)

M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in x-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J. 208, 177–190 (1976).
[Crossref]

T. Yaqoob, “Parameter estimation in x-ray astronomy revisited,” Astrophys. J. 500, 893–898 (1998).
[Crossref]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions–photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection AT E = 50–30,000 EV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

P. Lemoine, J. P. Quinn, P. D. Maguire, and J. A. D. McLaughlin, “Measuring the thickness of ultra-thin diamond-like carbon films,” Carbon 44, 2617–2624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD–software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12, 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

Current Sci. (1)

A. Gibaud and S. Hazra, “X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering,” Current Sci. 78, 1467–1477 (2000).

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

M. Oetzel and G. Heger, “Laboratory x-ray powder diffraction: a comparison of different geometries with special attention to the usage of the CuK alpha doublet,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 32, 799–807 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular x-ray scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

M. Nayak and G. S. Lodha, “Optical response near the soft x-ray absorption edges and structural studies of low optical contrast system using soft x-ray resonant reflectivity,” J. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 2011, 649153 (2011).

J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS (1)

I. A. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, A. M. Yakunin, S. Muellender, and F. Bijkerk, “Wavelength selection for multilayer coatings for lithography generation beyond extreme ultraviolet,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 11, 040501 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

K. Le Guen, M. H. Hu, J. M. Andre, P. Jonnard, S. K. Zhou, H. C. Li, J. T. Zhu, Z. S. Wang, and C. Meny, “Development and interfacial characterization of Co/Mg periodic multilayers for the EUV range,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 6484–6490 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. Banyay, L. Juschkin, E. Bersch, D. Franca, M. Liehr, and A. Diebold, “Cross characterization of ultrathin interlayers in HfO2 high-k stacks by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, and grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30, 041506 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. L. Windt and W. K. Waskiewicz, “Multilayer facilities required for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3826–3832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Appl. (1)

J. Serafinczuk, J. Pietrucha, G. Schroeder, and T. P. Gotszalk, “Thin film thickness determination using x-ray reflectivity and Savitzky–Golay algorithm,” Opt. Appl. 41, 315–322 (2011).

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Martinez-Galarce, R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, M. Bruner, E. Gullikson, S. Khatri, E. Spiller, J. C. Robinson, S. Baker, and E. Prast, “Multisegmented, multilayer-coated mirrors for the solar ultraviolet imager,” Opt. Eng. 52, 095102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Physica B (2)

M. H. Modi, G. S. Lodha, M. Nayak, A. K. Sinha, and R. V. Nandedkar, “Determination of layer structure in Mo/Si multilayers using soft x-ray reflectivity,” Physica B 325, 272–280 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Ulyanenkov, K. Omote, and J. Harada, “The genetic algorithm: refinement of x-ray reflectivity data from multilayers and thin films,” Physica B 283, 237–241 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (8)

P. D. Binda and F. E. Zocchi, “Genetic algorithm optimization of x-ray multilayer coatings,” Proc. SPIE 5539, 97–108 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Spiga, A. Mirone, G. Pareschi, R. Canestrari, V. Cotroneo, C. Ferrari, C. Ferrero, L. Lazzarini, and D. Vernani, “Characterization of multilayer stack parameters from x-ray reflectivity data using the PPM program: measurements and comparison with TEM results,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626616 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. G. Sertsu, A. Giglia, L. Juschkin, and P. Nicolosi, “Irradiation of low energy ions damage analysis on multilayers,” Proc. SPIE 9511, 95110P (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Giday, P. Zuppella, M. G. Pelizzo, and P. Nicolosi, “Exploring EUV near absorption edge optical constants for enhanced and sensitive grazing incidence reflectivity,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 886111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Fineschi, E. Antonucci, M. Romoli, A. Bemporad, G. Capobianco, G. Crescenzio, G. Nicolini, G. Massone, D. Telloni, M. Focardi, F. Landini, M. Pancrazzi, L. Poletto, M.-G. Pelizzo, V. Da Deppo, J. D. Moses, V. Andretta, G. Naletto, P. Nicolosi, D. Spadaro, A. Berlicki, M. Uslenghi, M. Malvezzi, L. Teriaca, L. Abbo, and E. Magli, “Novel space coronagraphs: METIS, a flexible optical design for multi-wavelength imaging and spectrography,” Proc. SPIE 8862, 88620G (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, and C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3676, 702–709 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Wedowski, E. M. Gullikson, J. H. Underwood, E. A. Spiller, C. Montcalm, P. A. Kearney, S. Bajt, M. A. Schmidt, and J. A. Folta, “Characterization of multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 108–111 (2000).

J. P. Halain, P. Rochus, E. Renotte, T. Appourchaux, D. Berghmans, L. Harra, U. Schuehled, W. Schmutz, F. Auchere, A. Zhukov, C. Dumesnil, F. Delmotte, T. Kennedy, R. Mercier, D. Pfiffner, L. Rossi, J. Tandy, A. BenMoussa, and P. Smith, “The EUI instrument on board the solar orbiter mission: from breadboard and prototypes to instrument model validation,” Proc. SPIE 8443, 844307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Solar Phys. (1)

D. Muller, R. G. Marsden, O. C. St Cyr, and H. R. Gilbert, “Solar orbiter exploring the Sun-heliosphere connection,” Solar Phys. 285, 25–70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. J. Matyi, “HIGH resolution x-ray reflectometry: theory, practice, accuracy and precision,” in Analytical and Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials, Devices and Processes (Electrochemical Society, 2003), pp. 440–454.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA,” in AIP Conference Proceedings (2004), pp. 450–453.

P. B. Mirkarimii, S. Bajt, and D. G. Stearns, “Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers,” PatentsWO2001040871 A1 (7June2001).

A. I. Fedorenko, Y. P. Pershin, O. V. Poltseva, A. G. Ponomarenko, D. L. Voronov, and S. A. Yulin, “Structure of interfaces in multilayers,” in Interfacial Engineering for Optimized Properties, C. L. Briant, C. B. Carter, and E. L. Hall, eds. (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 249–254.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Measured and fit curves of XRR for sample_01 with the Si/Mo capping structure. (b) Measured and simulated reflectivity at EUV (99 eV) for sample_01 with simulation thicknesses taken from the XRR fit. Note that Γ́ refers to the ratio of the Si layer to the period.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Measured and fit of XRR curves in IMD for sample_02. (b) Measured and simulated reflectivity at EUV (99 eV) for sample_02 with thicknesses taken from the XRR fit. Note that Γ́ is the ratio of the Si layer to the period.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. HR-TEM image of a Si/Mo ML discussed in [22]. The inset shows interface at the top of the ML structure.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical constants ( δ and β ) of Si near its L-edge resonance [31].
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measured and fit curves of GI-EUVR at 99 eV for sample_01. The table (right) contains thickness fit parameters of layers and interlayers. GI-EUVR has high tolerance to capping layer thicknesses (about 10 Å) unlike the interior layers with < 2 Å tolerance.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured and fit curves of GI-EUVR at 99 eV for sample_02. The table (right) contains thickness fit parameters of layers and interlayers. Thicknesses are determined with a tolerance error of < 2 Å .
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured and fit curves of GI-EUVR at 99 eV for sample_03. The table (right) contains thickness fit parameters of layers and interlayers. Thicknesses are determined with a tolerance error of < 2 Å .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. ML Design Parameters and Capping Layer a

Tables Icon

Table 2. GI-EUVR Optical Fit Parameters ( δ and β ) for Sample_01 at 99 eV Photon Energy Optical Constants from the Numerical Fit a

Tables Icon

Table 3. GI-EUVR Optical Fit Parameters for Sample_02 at 99 eV Photon Energy Optical Constants from the Numerical Fit a

Tables Icon

Table 4. GI-EUVR Optical Fit Parameters for Sample_03 at 99 eV Photon Energy Optical Constants from the Numerical Fit a

Equations (1)

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n = 1 δ ± i β ,

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