Abstract

We report picosecond laser welding of similar and dissimilar materials based on plasma formation induced by a tightly focused beam from a 1030 nm, 10 ps, 400 kHz laser system. Specifically, we demonstrate the welding of fused silica, borosilicate, and sapphire to a range of materials including borosilicate, fused silica, silicon, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Dissimilar material welding of glass to aluminum and stainless steel has not been previously reported. Analysis of the borosilicate-to-borosilicate weld strength compares well to those obtained using similar welding systems based on femtosecond lasers. There is, however, a strong requirement to prepare surfaces to a high (10–60 nm Ra) flatness to ensure a successful weld.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).
  5. H. Huang, L.-M. Yang, and J. Liu, “Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2979–2986 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
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  7. S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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2012 (5)

H. Huang, L.-M. Yang, and J. Liu, “Ultrashort pulsed fiber laser welding and sealing of transparent materials,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2979–2986 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).

D. Hélie, M. Bégin, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallée, “Reinforced direct bonding of optical materials by femtosecond laser welding,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2098–2106 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).

2008 (2)

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass–glass and glass–silicon,” Appl. Phys. 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).

2006 (3)

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, “Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser,” Sens. Actuators A 120, 550–561 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alexeev, I.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

Arai, A.

Ashby, M. F.

M. F. Ashby and D. R. H. Jones, in Engineering Materials 2—An Introduction to Microstructures, Processing and Design (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006), pp. 202–212.

Bégin, M.

Bovatsek, J.

Brenk, U.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass–glass and glass–silicon,” Appl. Phys. 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cvecek, K.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 10714–10727 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Döring, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S. M.

Eberhardt, R.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frick, T.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

Gottmann, J.

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).

Gutmann, R. J.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hand, D.

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).

Hélie, D.

Herman, P. R.

Hirose, A.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Horn, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass–glass and glass–silicon,” Appl. Phys. 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).

Huang, H.

Iida, M.

Inoue, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

Jones, D. R. H.

M. F. Ashby and D. R. H. Jones, in Engineering Materials 2—An Introduction to Microstructures, Processing and Design (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006), pp. 202–212.

Kachel, M.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass–glass and glass–silicon,” Appl. Phys. 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kongsuwan, P.

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).

Lacroix, F.

Lescieux, L.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Lorenz, N.

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).

Lu, J.-Q.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Micorikawa, K.

Mingareev, I.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass–glass and glass–silicon,” Appl. Phys. 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, I.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 10714–10727 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).

Niklaus, F.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nishiuchi, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oberhammer, J.

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, Y.

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Onda, S.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sano, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Satoh, G.

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).

Schmidt, C.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

Schmidt, M.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 10714–10727 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shah, L.

Stemme, G.

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Oberhammer, F. Niklaus, and G. Stemme, “Sealing of adhesive bonded devices on wafer level,” Sens. Actuators A 110, 407–412 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sugioka, K.

Takai, H.

Tamaki, T.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

Tan, A. W. Y.

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, “Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser,” Sens. Actuators A 120, 550–561 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tay, F. E. H.

A. W. Y. Tan and F. E. H. Tay, “Localized laser assisted eutectic bonding of quartz and silicon by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser,” Sens. Actuators A 120, 550–561 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

Watanabe, W.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, and K. Itoh, “Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558  nm,” Opt. Express 14, 10460–10468 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

Werth, A.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass–glass and glass–silicon,” Appl. Phys. 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).

Yamaguchi, H.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.-M.

Yao, Y. L.

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Zimmermann, F.

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass–glass and glass–silicon,” Appl. Phys. 93, 171–175 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Richter, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys. 103, 257–261 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 82601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021106 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Niklaus, G. Stemme, J.-Q. Lu, and R. J. Gutmann, “Adhesive wafer bonding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 031101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. (2)

I. Miyamoto, A. Horn, and J. Gottmann, “Local melting of glass material and its application to direct fusion welding by ps-laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 2, 7–14 (2007).

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7, 279–283 (2012).

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. (1)

P. Kongsuwan, G. Satoh, and Y. L. Yao, “Transmission welding of glass by femtosecond laser: mechanism and fracture strength,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 134, 011004 (2012).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L687–L689 (2005).
[Crossref]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

Q. Wu, N. Lorenz, and D. Hand, “Localised laser joining of glass to silicon with BCB intermediate layer,” Microsyst. Technol. 15, 1051–1057 (2009).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Procedia (1)

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, and M. Schmidt, “Novel fusion welding technology of glass using ultrashort pulse lasers,” Phys. Procedia 5, 483–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Richter, S. Döring, F. Zimmermann, L. Lescieux, R. Eberhardt, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Welding of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8244, 824402 (2012).
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W. Watanabe, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Ultrashort laser welding and joining,” in Femtosecond Laser Micromachining, O. Roberto, C. Giulio, and R. Roberta, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 2012), pp. 467–477.

M. F. Ashby and D. R. H. Jones, in Engineering Materials 2—An Introduction to Microstructures, Processing and Design (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006), pp. 202–212.

H. A. M. GmbH, “Lap-shear-strength-on-metals,” http://www.go-araldite.com/en/component/joomdoc/datasheet/Lap-Shear-Strength-on-metals.pdf/download .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic for the point loading system used to create optical contact between samples. The pneumatically actuated piston provides force to create an area of optical contact (insert) over the central piston.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Optical train for welding system. The beam expander increases the beam diameter from 5 mm FWHM to 10 mm FWHM, while the half-wave plate and polarizing beam splitter provide rough power selection.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Autocorrelation of pulse envelope of ps laser used.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Diagram of weld pattern used. The pattern is an outward arithmetic spiral with a pitch of 0.1 mm. The start position is offset from the spiral center by 0.1 mm (i.e., 2π). The spiral continues to a maximum radius of 1.25 mm (not shown).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Exploded view of shear break testing rig. Two differentially sized pieces of glass fit into machined recesses in an aluminum block. The block is loosely held with sliding bolts (not shown) and pulled apart along an axis normal to the weld plane.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Example plot of recorded shear force test. The shear force for the piece is calculated as the breaking force minus the residual force (due to the mass of the test rig being supported by the mechanism).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Photographs (left) and microscope images (right) of: (A) Al to SiO2, (B) Cu to SiO2, (C) stainless steel to borosilicate, (D) Si to SiO2, and (E) sapphire to stainless steel. White arrows indicate cracking in stainless steel examples.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Microscopy images of aluminum to SiO2 weld. (A) Dark field side-polished view at 100×, (B) transmission side-polished view at 100×, (C) bright field image at 20×, and (D) dark field image at 20×.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Electron microscope and XPS analysis of Al-SiO2 weld showing a mix of Al, Si, and O in the weld region. Note that the glass has cracked during cutting and polishing outside of the weld region.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Microscope images for borosilicate to borosilicate welding: (A) overview (reflection 5×), (B) detail (transmission 20×) and fused silica to fused silica welding, (C) overview (reflection 5×), and (D) detail (transmission 20×).
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Weibull plots for borosilicate-to-borosilicate weld shear tests based on a series of 20 1.79 W, Ø 2.5 mm welds.

Equations (1)

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Ps(V0)=Exp[(σσ0)m],

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