Abstract

Two Mo/Si multilayer-coated blazed gratings have been fabricated for operation at soft-x-ray wavelengths above the Si L edge, λ ≥ 12.4 nm, at (near) normal incidence. The sawtooth profile of the grating structure was mechanically ruled into a 200-nm Au film that was deposited onto a plane glass substrate. To smooth the rough Au surface and to prevent interdiffusion of the Au film with the upper Mo/Si multilayer, a carbon film was evaporated onto the Au grating surface of one of the gratings before the deposition of the multilayer coating. We matched the multilayer grating, working on blaze in the third diffraction order, in which an absolute diffraction efficiency of 3.4% at a wavelength of 14 nm was measured, whereas only 1.1% was achieved for a similar grating (without a carbon interlayer). These efficiencies are higher than those obtained for other ruled blazed gratings reported in the literature. As a result of the multilayer and grating periodicity, the wavelength of diffraction can be tuned by a rotation of the grating, which is important for application in a soft-x-ray monochromator.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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