Abstract

An analysis of a three-level system using time-dependent perturbation theory shows that two distinct photon-emission processes take place within such a system when stimulated optical emission occurs: one-and two-photon transitions. The two-photon transition consists of the emission of a stimulated photon followed by the absorption of a coherent pump photon. In three-level systems which possess a narrow pump level, two-photon transitions are dominant at high pump powers while the maser line is split into two lines due to the modulation of the wave function at an angular frequency determined by the rate of pumping. This might lead to the possibility of frequency-modulating the maser line. These results are extended qualitatively to include optical masers which possess broad pump-bands.

© 1962 Optical Society of America

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