Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites have recently emerged as a new class of light absorbers with a rapid progress and impressive efficiencies (>22%) for solar conversion applications. Despite the rapid progress demonstrated by these light absorbers, there is still a lack of understanding of some fundamental material/physical/chemical properties of these materials. There is also a significant processing gap between the lab-scale spin coating and scalable deposition methods toward future roll-to-roll manufacturing. In this presentation, I will show the challenges associated scaling up perovskite solar cells with respect to the sensitivity of perovskite crystallization/formation using different process conditions. I will present our recent studies toward a better understanding and control of perovskite nucleation, grain growth, and microstructure evolution using solution processing [1,2]. The precursor chemistry and growth conditions are found to affect significantly the structural and electro-optical properties of perovskite thin films. We find that the solution chemistry of the perovskite precursor ink is critical for scalable deposition perovskite thin films . But this has largely been underexplored. To address this issue, we present a rational design of perovskite precursor film formation to achieve uniform and compact thin films using scalable deposition methods. Using these high-quality perovskite films, we have obtained device efficiencies approaching the values achieved by using lab-scale spin coating deposition. High efficiency perovskite PV mini-modules have also been demonstrated with scalable depositions. These findings make a significant advance towards commercialization of the perovskite PV technology. These results and others will be discussed.
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