Modulated photoluminescence techniques uses modulated illumination to measure the effective carrier lifetime of solar cells. This is done be measuring the phase difference between the illumination and the photoluminescence from the silicon sample. The unique advantage of this method is the ability to measure the carrier lifetime of metallized and non-metallized silicon samples, which is not possible with conventional lifetime measurement techniques. With this advantage, we are able monitor the lifetime before and after solar cell metallization processes.

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