Emphasis has recently been focused on multi-terabit/s-capacity transmission over long distance to cope with the ever-increasing demand of Internet traffic.1–4 To meet such demand, higher bit rates based WDM technology has been very attractive, as it offers high spectral efficiency, large capacity with smaller number of channels, less space, less power consumption and most importantly reduced system cost. Such systems require special optical components, e.g. stable short pulse high bit rate transmitters covering the whole C-band. High power multiple wavelength Raman amplifiers are needed to reduce the non-linearity in the system, and these must be incorporated with multi-stage, high power, low noise figure, spectrally broadened EDFAs. Specially designed DGEF filters capable of individually controlling each signal channel are essential to flatten the extremely complex gain profile of the hybrid Raman/EDFA.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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