To achieve maximum fuel economy and minimum emissions potential for a diverse range of global application, future internal combustion engine automotive powertrains will need to synergistically integrate key building block technologies. Chief among these technologies are downsized boosting, closed loop engine controls, dilute and lean combustion and electrification. Improvements to conventional ignition systems and development of alternate ignition systems to enable lean-burn combustion strategies is a significant challenge.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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