We will present the systematic study on nonadiabatic effect of strong-field tunneling ionization. We present the subcycle non-adiabatic strong-field tunneling theory and derive the position of tunnel exit, the transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions at the tunnel exit, and the ionization rate in an instantaneous laser field. These tunneling coordinates are shown to non-adiabatically couple with each other in an instantaneous laser field when the electron tunnels. Then we will present several experiments to illustrate the importance of non-adiabatic effect in strong-field ionization.

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