We review the basic requirement for isolators, and reiterate the well known fact that isolators require non-reciprocity. We then discuss means to achieve non-reciprocity, either with or without magneto-optics. 150-word Biography: Shanhui Fan is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Stanford University. He received his Ph. D in 1997 in theoretical condensed matter physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and was a research scientist at the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT prior to his appointment at Stanford. His research interests are in computational and theoretical studies of solid state and photonic structures and devices, especially photonic crystals, plasmonics, and meta-materials. He has published over 260 refereed journal articles that were cited over 17,000 times, has given over 210 invited talks, and was granted 44 US patents. Prof. Fan received a National Science Foundation Career Award (2002), a David and Lucile Packard Fellowship in Science and Engineering (2003), the National Academy of Sciences Award for Initiative in Research (2007), and the Adolph Lomb Medal from the Optical Society of America (2007). He is a Fellow of the IEEE, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the SPIE. Article not available.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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