Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) provides potentially compact and robust time-domain instrumentation for real-world application to permit non-invasive differentiation between different types or states of tissue autofluorescence. It also permits imaging of the local environment of fluorescence labels, such as GFP applied to study molecular recognition and protein trafficking in cells, and it provides new opportunities for assays of micro-arrays. Wide-field FLIM combined with spectral and polarization discrimination provides enhanced functional contrast at high-speed

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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