Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is a process by which energy is transferred from one wavelength to the next through a nonlinear scattering process. This phenomenon can be used to Raman amplify signals in a telecommunication systems. In this tutorial, the process of SRS is reviewed; and the advantages of Raman pumping a transmission span, improved noise figure and gain flatness, are discussed. Problems that can arise such as, multiple path interference of Rayleigh backscattered light, and pump noise transfer are examined. Finally, pumping schemes such as multiple order Raman pumping and time division multiplexed pumping are studied.
© 2003 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article