At modulation speeds in excess of 1 Gbit/sec, it becomes increasingly difficult to modulate semiconductor injection lasers directly, especially if the laser must remain in a single optical mode. As optical fiber data transmission systems have moved to these speeds, there has been increased interest in high-speed external modulators that could be used in conjunction with cw single-mode lasers to form a high-performance optical transmitter. For example, a lithium niobate directional coupler/modulator that operated to 10 GHz has been reported.1

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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